Incontinence is the inability to control excretory function leading to urinary or fecal incontinence respectively. Urinary incontinence (UI) is a prevalent condition in older adults and often they do not seek help from health care providers. Clinicians should screen for continence issues at each health encounter. A thorough assessment should take place when UI or other lower urinary tract symptoms are detected. Elements of a symptom-based assessment include a medical history, physical examination and assessment of cognitive and functional abilities. (1)

Bladder Function Module 1: Incidence and Impact of Urinary Incontinence

Bladder Function Module 2: Causes of Urinary Incontinence

Bladder Function Module 3: Assessment & Screening

Bladder Function Module 4: Treatment, Care & Principles of Communication

Bowel Function Module 1: Normal Bowel Function

Bowel Function Module 2: Causes of IBS, Constipation and Diarrhea

Bowel Function Module 3: Assessment & Evaluation

Bowel Function Module 4: Management & Evaluation

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