Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs. Asthma is often initially diagnosed in younger people. The cause of asthma is unknown. Individuals with asthma often have symptoms when in the presence of a stimulating trigger, which can include exposure to various irritants and substances. This can cause an obstruction of airflow in and out of the lungs as the lungs become irritated and inflamed.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a lung disease that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. In 80-90% of cases, it is caused by smoking.
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a type of lung disease that results in scarring (fibrosis) of the lungs for an unknown reason.
Restrictive lung disease, a decrease in the total volume of air that the lungs are able to hold, is often due to a decrease in the elasticity of the lungs themselves or caused by a problem related to the expansion of the chest wall during inhalation. Examples of restrictive lung diseases include asbestosis, sarcoidosis and pulmonary fibrosis.
Pneumonia is a common lung infection and is the leading cause of hospitalization in both children and adults. Pneumonia is often spread through coughing, sneezing, touching, or breathing. The infection causes the alveoli (air sacs in the lungs) to become inflamed and fill with fluid or pus.
Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) refers to an elevated pressure in the pulmonary arteries. PH is a serious illness and can be life-threatening. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is an important category of PH and is often the most severe. PAH is due to disease in the pulmonary arteries and can become narrowed and can be scarred to the point of being closed. There are five groups of PH, all classified based on causes.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious disease caused by breathing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB usually infects the lungs. TB can also infect other parts of the body, including the kidneys, spine and brain. TB is highly contagious especially since a person can have TB and be unaware.
Obstructive sleep apnea is when a person experiences short pauses in breathing when sleeping. These apneic episodes can last for 10 to 30 seconds or longer. People with obstructive sleep apnea can stop breathing dozens or hundreds of times each night leading to sleep disruption and low levels of oxygen.