Diabetes-specific parameters did not predict BMD. Fracture occurrence was similar in both diabetes groups and related to lower BMD, but seems unrelated to the threshold T-score, <−2.5 SD. These results suggest that osteoporosis, and related fractures, is a clinically significant and commonly underestimated problem in diabetes patients.13 pages. Last reviewed August 2018.

This article discusses a study investigating the risk of hip fractures and non-skeletal fall injuries in older men and women with and without type two diabetes. 12 pages. Last reviewed August 2018.

The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence of the effects of Tai-Chi Chuan on bone mineral density and its potential for prevention of osteoporosis. 11 pages. Last reviewed August 2018.

This research article describes a study investigating the effects of a simple exercise program on the balance and strength of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. 9 pages. Last reviewed August 2018.

This article describes a randomized controlled trial where an intervention group was assigned to a 12 month exercise program (3 times a week for 30 min. sessions) and a control group with no intervention with osteoporotic women who had at least one previous fracture.  6 pages. Last reviewed August 2018.

The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis was to explore the effect of balance training on falls in patients with osteoporosis. Their findings suggest that balance training may significantly reduce the frequency of falls in patients with osteoporosis. 5 pages. Last reviewed August 2018. 

The authors discuss the evidence suggesting that muscle quality and posture alignment are crucial for balance in older adults and for preventing falls and fractures in those with osteoporosis.  5 pages. Last reviewed August 2018.

This article describes systematic literature research and meta-analysis to explore the association between osteoporosis / bone mineral density and Alzheimer's disease. 8 pages. Last reviewed August 2018.

The authors discuss the relationship between Vitamin D deficiency, Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis.  5 pages. Last reviewed August 2018.

This UK  guideline document includes sections on fracture risk assessment, lifestyle measures in the management of osteoporosis, pharmacological interventions, duration and monitoring of bisphosphonate therapy, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, osteoporosis in men, post-fracture care and recommendations. 36 pages. Last reviewed August 2018.

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